Ask Luís! (#13): Stress and vowel height changes in different verb forms

Hello, everyone! Today I bring you a question about sound changes and stress patterns in verb forms. A quite pertinent question, something that we usually just take for granted but that can be hard for someone to learn. Here’s the question:

Olá Luís,
Gosto muito do seu blog!!
Há umas regras gerais sobre como pronunciar os vogais nas palavras como ‘meter’ e ‘ganhar’ etc que não mudam no processo de inflexão?
Por exemplo, metem, mete, meto, e metam (de Conjuntivo), e ganhava, ganho, ganham, e ganhe, ganhem (de Conjuntivo), etc. São muitas diferenças entre EP e BP?
Obrigado pela ajuda!
Huawen

 

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Ask Luís! (#12): Translation of “claro” / Text revision

Hello, everyone! Here’s a new question from Yuliya (and for all of you, of course):

Olá, Luís!

Vou perguntar te de novo. Esta vez sobre do verbo para a palavra “claro”. Como é que é correto “está claro” ou “é claro”? Na Internet vejo ambas formas usadas.

E segunda pergunta é sobre o tempo passado que deve ser usado para dizer “It was clear”. Foi claro? Era claro? Ou esteve(estava) claro?

Se não te importares, gostava de te pedir para reveres esta mensagem.
Obrigada, Yuliya

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Ask Luís! (#10): Clitic position in Portuguese

Hello, everyone! This time we have a question from Michael João, a Kiwi-Portuguese with some very pertinent questions about clitic pronouns:

Kia ora Luis!

Michael here from New Zealand again.

Thank you for your answer about the progressive tense and the use of the gerund in EU Portuguese.

I recently spent 6 weeks in Portugal, and managed to celebrate Santo Antonio in Lisbon and São João in Braga!! Era uma experiênca para a vida inteira!

tenho uma nova pergunta:

Clitics, or the time when the object is stuck to the end of the verb with a hyphen (technical term usage here)

I’d love to know when to use it, and when to put the object before the verb, if there is a rule or a guide, to make sure I can construct sentences like a native.

Memrise (Portuguese: Portugal) give me: “não tinha a intenção de magoá-lo, but then in the same lesson, “nunca me ouve” “magoaste-o”.

as this is something my 20,000+XP in duo never taught me, I’d really appreciate some help with this aspect of EP grammar and sentence formation, and I’m sure your other readers would too.

Thank you so much for this wonderful blog. You are such a great help to so many.

Yours on the other side of the planet

M. João Tavares.

Kia ora, Michael!

Thank you so much for your continued readership! It’s great to have a lusodescendente (the noun we use for the descendants of Portuguese people all over the world) who’s so engaged with learning more about the country and the language; it’s also amazing that you had a change to visit Portugal for so long – June really is one of the best months to visit!

Regarding your question, clitics truly are a beast in and of themselves, but there are a few rules about their placement. Unlike BP, regular affirmative sentences will have the clitic after the noun with an hyphen joining the two; to quote your examples:

  • Não tinha a intenção de magoá-lo. I didn’t intend to hurt him/it [masc.].
  • Magoaste-o. You hurt him/it [masc.].

Here the object pronoun changes (from -o to -lo) because there’s another rule that says that infinitives lose their -r after clitics (you can read about it in the article I wrote about object pronouns, especially under “Lo/La | Los/Las“).

The example you give of proclisis (when the clitic comes before the verb) is an exception, triggered by amongst other things:

  • After negative particles:
    • Ela nunca me ouve. She never hears me.
    • Eu não lhe disse que o amava. I didn’t tell him I loved him.
    • Nada me diz que isso seja verdade. Nothing tells me that’s true.
  • A subordinate clause:
    • A Maria disse que o Miguel a tinha convidado para sair. Maria said [that] Miguel had asked her out.
    • Ele avisou-me que lhe tinham roubado a carteira. He warned me that his wallet had been stolen.
  • After most adverbs:
    • Ele  me ligou depois das sete. He only called me after seven.
    • Nós  te comprámos a tua prenda de Natal. We have already bought your Christmas present.
    • Sempre me disseram que é bom ser bem educado. People have always told me it’s good to be polite.
    • Quando me dizem que estou gordo, finjo que não ouço. Whenever people tell me I’m fat, I pretend I’m not listening.
  • Optionally, with some prepositions like para (meaning to, in order to) or de followed by a second verb:
    • Fiz um bolo para lhe agradecer a ajuda. I baked him a cake to thank him/her for his help. (para agradecer-lhe would sound weird to some speakers, but not to all – and in any case, still acceptable)
    • Eu gosto de te ajudar. I like to help you. (same with ajudar-te).

These are probably the most significant cases; your question is obviously very pertinent – the language does seem a bit hectic when you see it without this filter – which I’m sure you’ll get with time and practice!

To clarify a few other things, clitics which would be written with -l[o/a/os/as] and -n[o/a/os/as] return to their base form when forced to go before the noun, and assumed mesoclitics become a normal, basic proclitic pronoun followed by the unbroken form of the verb – here is one example of each:

  1. Eu vou comprar-lhe uma cerveja para o felicitar pelo novo trabalho. I will buy him a beer to congratulate him on his new job. (regular form: felicitá-lo)
  2. Eu não lhe darei esta carta. I won’t give him this letter [in the affirmative, it would be Eu dar-lhe-ei esta carta].

If you have any other questions, please let me know in the comments!

Best from Portugal via Luxembourg all the way to New Zealand :)

 

Ask Luís (#9): adverbs of manner in EP

Hi, everyone! Here’s another long-suffering question from Yuliya (sorry again for the lack of answers):

Olá, Luís! Tenho uma mais pergunta para fazer.

Encontro alguns advérbios em duas formas: na forma de adjetivo e com término -mente. Por exemplo, “ele fala rápido” e “ele fala rapidamente”. Ou “ele fala fluente” e “ele fala fluentemente”. São ambas formas corretas? É uma forma mais preferida?

Obrigada, Yuliya.

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Ask Luís! (#7): Use of the present indicative vs. future subjunctive in relative clauses with quem

Hello, everyone! I hope you’re all having a nice week (:

Today’s question comes via Elaine in the United States:

Olá professor! Por favor, queria saber porque o JB (o jornal) não usou o futuro do conjuntivo na oração que começa com: “…enquanto luta contra quem quer (quiser?) expulsá-la de vez…”

«The New York Times comenta que uma sensação de impotência e indignação permeia o Palácio da Alvorada, a residência onde Dilma Rousseff, mesmo afastada é permitida de habitar enquanto luta contra quem quer expulsá-la de uma vez por todas

Agradeço desde já, Luís.

The answer will follow after the jump.

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Ask Luís! (#6): Modes of address in EP (Tu | Você) / Text revision (3)

Hello, everyone! I hope your Portuguese studies/life is going swell! I’ve been quite busy in the last few days, so I’m only getting up to speed with my messages now (it’s only just the one, so lucky me!). Don’t worry, I’ve written quite a few Words of the week in advance, so you’ll always have those two posts per week guaranteed at least until early July.

Now, here is today’s message from Yuliya:

Olá, Luís!

Tenho uma pergunta que é mais sobre hábitos em vez da gramática: “tu/você” emprego.

Em russo temos as formas formal e informal também. Se eu falo com uma pessoa desconhecida uso a forma formal, o mesmo na Internet ou cara a cara. Claro que há pessoas que usam em russo a forma informal na Internet também, mas não é o hábito geral. Mas em português, encontrei muitas vezes que a forma informal (tu) está utilizada na Internet mesmo falando com os estranhos.

Queria saber se “tu” forma é aceitável completamente para falar com os estranhos nos fóruns ou nas redes sociais? Ainda “você” fica pelas conversas cara a cara?

Muito obrigada pelos todos os materiais de estudo no teu blog. Se não te importares, gostava de te pedir para reveres esta mensagem também. :)

Yuliya

Yuliya, thank you for your kind words (again) and the questions, obviously. I’ll answer them and rewrite your test after the jump.

P.S. If you’d also like your EP skills to be reviewed by me, send me a short message (2 to 3 main paragraphs) to my Q&A form.

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Ask Luís! (#5): Assessment of Duolingo for EP learners / Text revision

Hello, everyone! I hope you’re having a great week – hopefully the weekend will be even better (:

Today, I have a query and a text revision assignment coming all the way from Russia. This one is from Yuliya:

Olá Luís!

Aprendo Português (EP) desde setembro passado. Tenho as aulas no centro da língua e cultura portuguesas. Mas quero ter mais prática e por isso uso curso de Português de Duolingo.
O questão é: acha que Duolingo é útil para practicar a língua no entanto sendo BP orientado? Pode prática de BP ter uma conseqüência negativa para um estudo de EP?

Muito agradeço (não ainda aprendí o tempo futuro :)) se você revisa esta mensagem também.

Yuliya

Hello, Yuliya! First of all, thank you so much for your comments and feedback – it’s always good to know there are people who are invested in learning EP and that my work is somehow making things easier for you.

An answer to your questions, together with a revision of your vocab and grammar like you asked, will follow the jump. This is a big one, so read it calmly and without stress!

P.S. If you’d like your EP skills to be reviewed by me, send me a short message (2 to 3 main paragraphs) to my Q&A form.

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Ask Luís! (#4): Condiments in EP / Copy editing an email

Hello, everyone! This message came to me via email; I’m always keen to answer your questions, but I’d like to ask you to write emails only about issues that you feel aren’t covered by the Ask Luís! feature. Simple questions can be sent using the Google Q&A form you can find by clicking the tab; more complex questions/queries/suggestions/general comments about the blog can and should be sent using the email I’ve provided you (:

This person didn’t leave [insertpossessive here] name, so let’s call [insert object pronoun here] CT:

Olá Luis tudo bem,  eu gosto muito dos seus blogues.

Estou a ensiar a si mesmo como falar portugues (pt-pt claro), eu tenho me ensinado faz um ano e um medio. Eu queria saber se tu podes escrever acerca de
condiments (não sei dizer em portugues) por examlpo; ketchup, mustard, bbq sauce, mayonaise… coisas assim.

Qualquer jeito, eu espero que tu podes me entender, obrigado

First of all, thank you for your kind words regarding myself and the blog (it’s really just the one, unless you took a peek at my juvenilia poetry lately, which I find very unlikely). I’d like to thank you for your question as well: I never thought I’d receive one specifically about condiments, but I love it! It’s quirky, slightly odd, but also a perfectly reasonable demand considering the ubiquity of these products in most people’s lives.

The answer will follow, as usual, after the jump.

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