To finish this world tour close to home, I’ll focus on a series of differences between EP and BP when it comes to the names of several European cities.
- Madrid: Madrid (EP) > Madri (BP)
- Amsterdam: Amesterdão (EP) > Amsterdã (BP)
- Copenhagen: Copenhaga (EP) > Copenhague (BP)
- Helsinki: Helsínquia (EP) > Helsinque (BP)
- Moscow: Moscovo (EP) > Moscou (BP)
Most of these differences are related to the different phonologies of either variant, which in turn created different customary uses for each city name; for example, the pattern of BP losing the last “o” in a word place name with “ão” in EP also holds true for the Portuguese names for Iran and its capital city, Tehran:
- Iran: Irão (EP) > Irã (BP)
- Tehran: Teerão (EP) > Teerã (BP)
And the pattern of having open vowels (especially “o” and “e”) in stressed syllables before nasal consonants (m, n, nh) in EP turn into closed vowels in BP (which I’ve highlighted at the start of our trip to Polónia) holds true for many more place names, both for cities and countries:
- Cologne (Köln): Colónia (EP) > Colônia (BP)
- Armenia: [a] Arménia (EP) > [a] Armênia (BP)
- Monaco: [o] Mónaco (EP) > [o] Mônaco (BP)
- Romania: [a] Roménia (EP) > [a] Romênia (BP)
A full list of these differences can be found on a forthcoming Grammar Tips post that will serve as a thesaurus of place names in European Portuguese.
Related words/useful sentences:
- [a] capital: capital (of a country/region/state)
- [a] cidade: city
- [o] país: country
- [a] Europa: Europe
- [o] europeu / [a] europeia: European
- [a] União Europeia: European Union
- Madrid é a capital de Espanha. Madrid is the capital of Spain.
- Helsínquia é a capital da Finlândia. Helsinki is the capital of Finland.
- Vou fazer uma viagem de carro desde o Mónaco até Moscovo. I will make a car trip from Monaco to Moscow.